Challenges and Opportunities

1. FMNR – Widespread with diverse range of trees with multiple products and uses
2. Faidherbia – highly valued but distribution is not uniform and densities are low:

  • Natural regeneration in natural range
  • Plant air pruned seedlings outside its range
  • Direct sow with pre treated seed

3. Other Planted Systems: Tephrosia, P peas, Gliricidia etc
4. Actions / Strategies / Incentives for scaling up

FMNR in Southern Africa

  • Most widespread and successful AF system in Southern Africa & perhaps other regions of Africa
  • Farmer driven practice – easy, low cost, multiple uses and products, restores natural diversity / builds resilience to environment & livelihoods
  • Despite these facts, few organizations or donors know of or support this practice
  • Needs high attention, research, exposure and publicity to attract support of Govts, Donors, NGOs and Private Sector to realize its potential


Density & Composition of NR Trees on Farms

Top 15 SpeciesDensity
% CompTop 15 SpeciesDensity
% CompTop 15 SpeciesDensity
% Comp
Piliostigma thonningii83.7549.1%Piliostigma thonningii35.3426.1%Combretum molle23.7020.0%
Combretum collinum37.5922.0%Combretum collinum26.3219.4%Markhamia obtusifolia19.7116.7%
Acacia polyacantha7.494.4%Combretum zeyheri17.7413.1%Brachystegia spiciformis16.0113.5%
Lonchocarpus capassa6.473.8%Markhamia obtusifolia11.528.5%Piliostigma thonningii13.5511.5%
Rauvolfia caffra5.503.2%Acacia polyacantha4.563.4%Erythrina abyssinica8.417.1%
Markhamia obtusifolia4.732.8%Albizia harveyi4.423.3%Azanza garkeana5.294.5%
Faidherbia albida2.861.7%Faidherbia albida4.413.3%Strychnos spinosa3.693.1%
Kigelia africana2.651.6%Entada abyssinica3.882.9%Acacia polyacantha3.282.8%
Azanza garkeana2.451.4%Lonchocarpus capassa3.742.8%Combretum collinum2.682.3%
Combretum molle2.021.2%Combretum molle3.112.3%Combretum zeyheri2.281.9%
Combretum zeyheri1.560.9%Albizia amara1.991.5%Faidherbia albida1.901.6%
Vitex payos1.360.8%Strychnos spinosa1.971.5%Vangueria infausta1.681.4%
Erythrina abyssinica1.290.8%Cussonia arborea1.951.4%Combretum psidioides1.591.3%
Entada abyssinica1.230.7%Vangueria infausta1.951.4%Croton macrostachys1.161.0%
Maytenus senegalensis1.230.7%Azanza garkeana1.831.4%Entada abyssinica1.161.0%
14 Other Species8.404.9%16 Other Species10.747.9%24 Other species12.2110.3%
Tree Density / ha170.59100.0%Tree Density / ha135.47100.0%Tree Density / ha118.32100%
Mean DBH (cm)6.96Mean DBH (cm)9.24Mean DBH (cm)10.23
Mean Height (m)3.31Mean Height (m)4.15Mean Height (m)4.27
# Species in Transects29# Species in Transects31# Species in Transects39
Diversity Index3.38Diversity Index8.22Diversity Index11.23
# Trees in Transects320# Trees in Transects320# Trees in Transects320


Summary of Density & Composition of NR Trees on Farms

(Young Age)
LILONGWE EAST (Medium Age)DOWA WEST (Older Site)
Tree Density / ha170.59135.47118.32
Mean DBH (cm)6.969.2410.23
Mean Height (m)3.314.154.27
Total # Species Recorded293139
Diversity Index3.388.2211.23
# Total Trees in Sample320320320

Presentation by Trent Bunderson